Modelling Students’ Performance in Plane Trigonometry with their Levels of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivations

Louie Jay S. Pastera, Jerson M. Guay, Mark Vincent T. Cortez, Nancy S. Doloriel


The nature of motivation is vital for the improvement of student learning outcomes. Exploring the motivational beliefs as to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is a critical way to understand the impact of these two types of motivation as driving behavior in learning plane trigonometry subject among college students. The study aimed to generate a model of the students’ academic performance in mathematics using their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The study used a correlational research design, which consisted of 140 responses from selected college students of Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology. Further, the students enrolled in a Plane Trigonometry subject during the 1st semester of A.Y. 2015-2016 were selected through a random sampling technique. To determine the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in learning mathematics, respondents were evaluated based on a modified checklist from the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS–C 28) College version of Vallerand et al. (1993). Results revealed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation had a significant impact on the students’ academic performance in mathematics. Thus, the students are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to ensure a good grade in mathematics.


Academic Performance; Intrinsic Motivation; Extrinsic Motivation; Multiple Linear Regression Model; Plane Trigonometry;

Full Text:



Adesemowo, P. O. (2005). Premium on affective education: panacea for scholastic malfunctioning and aberration. Olabisi Onabanjo University Press.

Areepattamannil, S. (2014). Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India. The Journal of general psychology, 141(3), 247-262.

Awanbor, D. (2005, November). Credentialing process in the Nigerian educational system. In Keynote Address Presented at the First Annual Conference of the Faculty of Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma.

Ayub, N. (2010). Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on academic performance. Pakistan business review, 8, 363-372.

Barry, J. (2006). The effect of socio-economic status on academic achievement (Doctoral dissertation).

Brown, LV. (2007). Psychology of Motivation. New York: Nova Publishers.

Carlson, N. and Heth, D. (2007). Psychology the Science of Behaviour. Pearson Education: New Jersey.

Considine, G., & Zappalà, G. (2002). The influence of social and economic disadvantage in the academic performance of school students in Australia. Journal of sociology, 38(2), 129-148.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Intrinsic motivation. The corsini encyclopedia of psychology, 1-2.

Dev, P. C. (1997). Intrinsic motivation and academic achievement: What does their relationship imply for the classroom teacher? Remedial and special education, 18(1), 12-19.

Eraikhuemen, L. (2003). The Influence of Gender and School Location on Students’ Academic Achievement in Senior Secondary School Mathematics. Ife Journal of Theory and Research in Education. 7(2), 99-112.

Griggs, RA. (2010). Psychology: A Concise Introduction. New York: Worth Publishers.

Güvendir, M. A. (2016). Students' extrinsic and intrinsic motivation level and its relationship with their mathematics achievement. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 17(1).

Hoefer, P., & Gould, J. (2000). Assessment of admission criteria for predicting students' academic performance in graduate business programs. Journal of Education for Business, 75(4), 225-229.

Hoffmann, K. F., Huff, J. D., Patterson, A. S., & Nietfeld, J. L. (2009). Elementary teachers' use and perception of rewards in the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(6), 843-849.

Kuncel, N. R., Credé, M., & Thomas, L. L. (2007). A Meta Analysis of the Predictive Validity of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Undergraduate Grade Point Average (UGPA) for Graduate Student Academic Performance. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(1), 51-68.

Kusurkar, R. A., Ten Cate, T. J., Vos, C. M. P., Westers, P., & Croiset, G. (2013). How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis. Advances in health sciences education, 18(1), 57-69.

Kyoshaba, M. (2009). Factors affecting academic performance of undergraduate students at Uganda Christian University (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University).

Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of educational psychology, 97(2), 184.

Lievens, F., Coetsier, P., De Fruyt, F., & De Maeseneer, J. (2002). Medical students' personality characteristics and academic performance: A five‐factor model perspective. Medical education, 36(11), 1050-1056.

MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 12(1), 73-84.

Osborne, J. W., & Overbay, A. (2004). The power of outliers (and why researchers should always check for them). Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 9(1), 6.

Paul, R. K. (2006). Multicollinearity: Causes, effects and remedies. IASRI, New Delhi, 1(1), 58-65.

Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological bulletin, 135(2), 322.

Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of educational Psychology, 104(3), 700.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 54-67.

Schneider, J. (2012). Intrinsic Motivation vs. Extrinsic Motivation: A Survey of Middle School Students to Determine Their Motivation for Taking Choir as an Elective Class (Doctoral dissertation, Northwest Missouri State University).

Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. (2009). Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61(5), 700-707.

Statistics Solution. (2013a). Normality [WWW Document]. Last retrieved on January 06, 2018 from

Statistics Solution. (2013b). Homoscedasticity [WWW Document]. Last retrieved on January 06, 2018 from

Tsigilis, N., & Theodosiou, A. (2003). Temporal stability of the intrinsic motivation inventory. Perceptual and motor skills, 97(1), 271-280.

Vallerand, R J., Blais, MR., Briere, N M., and Pelletier, LG. (1998). Construction et validation de l’Echelle de Motivation en Éducation (EME). [Construction and validation of the Ëchelle de Motivation en Éducation (EME).] Can J Behav Sci. 1998; 21:323–349.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Brière, N. M., Senécal, C. B., & Vallières, É. F. (1993). Academic motivation scale (ams-c 28) college (cegep) version. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(53), 1992-1993.

Vansteenskiste, M., Zhou, M., Lens, W., Soenens, B. (2005). Experiences of Autonomy and Control among Chinese Learners: Vitalizing or Immobilizing? Journal of Educational Psychology. 2005; 97(3):468-483.

Walker, C. O., Greene, B. A., & Mansell, R. A. (2006). Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement. Learning and individual differences, 16(1), 1-12.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

SDSSU Multidisciplinary Research Journal (SMRJ)

North Eastern Mindanao State University (NEMSU)
Research Journal Publication Office
Rosario, Tandag City Surigao del Sur 8300, Philippines

p-ISSN: 2244-6990
e-ISSN: 2408-3577